Base Metals Mining in Australia to 2020

The Australian mining industry is of vital importance to the country’s economy, with a 10.1% share of its GDP in FY 2012–13 and potential for significant employment generation. Furthermore, substantial deposits and geographic proximity to emerging Asian economies augur well for this mining nation. The country produces 19 minerals in significant amounts and according to Geoscience Australia 2014, the nation is the second largest producer of lead and zinc, the fourth largest producer of nickel and the fifth largest producer of copper in the world, together with hosting the world's largest resources of lead, nickel and zinc and the second largest resources of copper. In 2013, Australia’s copper mine production was 966,410 tons, nickel mine production was 220,664 tons, zinc mine production was 1.6 million tons (Mt) and lead mine production was 603,340 tons.

Scope

The report contains an overview of the Australian base metals mining industry together with the key growth factors and restraints affecting the country’s base metals mining industry. Furthermore, it provides detailed information about production, prices, reserves, reserves by regions, competitive landscape, major active, exploration and development projects, consumption and trade. Also included is the country's fiscal regime, which includes governing bodies and relevant laws, rights and obligations of the mining companies, as well as key fiscal terms.

Key Highlights

• The ban imposed on nickel ores and concentrates exports by the Indonesian government is likely to benefit the Australian nickel mining industry. Australian nickel miners have been facing difficulties because of lower nickel prices in recent years.

• Continued weakness in the prices of base metals has started affecting the development of planned projects in Australia. The base metal industry is facing a downturn, as commodity prices are declining and many projects are delayed due to rising input cost.

• Australia had the second largest copper reserves in the world next to Chile, with 86Mt or around 12.6% of global reserves at the end of 2012, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Australia’s Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) compliant reserves were about 25.2Mt and EDR was 91.1Mt at the end of 2012.

• Almost 90% of Australia’s economic resources of nickel are located in Western Australia, followed by New South Wales (5%), Queensland (4%) and Tasmania (less than 1%). Australia is home to the world’s largest komatiite-hosted nickel sulphide and lateritic deposits.

Reasons to buy

To gain an understanding of the Australian base metals mining industry, the relevant drivers and restraining factors, historical and forecast production, consumption and trade data and the fiscal regime.

Companies mentioned

MMG Ltd

Western Areas Ltd

Panoramic Resources Ltd

Hillgrove Resources Ltd

Glencore Xstrata Plc

China Minmetals Corporation Newmont Mining Corporation

Intec Ltd

Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary 1

2 Base Metal Mining in Australia 7

2.1 Country Overview 7

2.2 Mining Overview 7

2.3 Base Metals Mining In Australia – Drivers 9

2.4 Base Metals Mining In Australia – Restraints 10

2.5 Base Metals Mining In Australia – Upcoming Projects 10

3 Copper Mining In Australia – Production, Consumption, Reserves and Trade 11

3.1 Reserves by Grades and Geographic Regions 11

3.2 Historical and Forecast Production 13

3.3 Total Production by Region 15

3.4 Total Production by Mining Method 16

3.5 Copper Prices 16

3.6 Total Production by Major Mines 18

3.7 Major Exploration and Development Projects 19

3.8 Domestic Consumption vs. Exports 21

3.8.1 Export to Destination Countries 22

3.9 Demand Drivers 24

3.9.1 Demand vs. Final Uses 24

4 Nickel Mining in Australia – Production, Consumption, Reserves and Trade 25

4.1 Reserves by Grades and Geographic Regions 25

4.2 Historical and Forecast Production 27

4.3 Total Production by Region 29

4.4 Nickel Prices 29

4.5 Total Production by Major Mines 30

4.6 Major Exploration and Development Projects 31

4.7 Domestic Consumption vs. Exports 32

4.7.1 Export to Destination Countries 34

4.8 Demand Drivers 35

4.8.1 Demand vs. Final Uses 35

5 Zinc Mining in Australia – Production,Consumption,Reserves and Trade 36

5.1 Reserves by Grades and Geographic Regions 36

5.2 Historical and Forecast Production 36

5.3 Total Production by Region 38

5.4 Zinc Prices 38

5.5 Total Production by Major Mines 40

5.6 Major Exploration and Development Projects 41

5.7 Domestic Consumption vs. Exports 43

5.7.1 Export to Destination Countries 45

5.8 Demand Drivers 45

5.8.1 Demand vs. Final Uses 46

6 Lead Mining in Australia – Production,Consumption,Reserves and Trade 47

6.1 Reserves by Grades and Geographic Regions 47

6.2 Historical and Forecast Production 47

6.3 Total Production by Region 49

6.4 Lead Prices 50

6.5 Total Production by Major Mines 51

6.6 Major Exploration and Development Projects 52

6.7 Domestic Consumption vs. Exports 54

6.7.1 Export to Destination Countries 56

6.8 Demand Drivers 57

6.8.1 Demand vs. Final Uses 57

7 Competitive Landscape 58

7.1 MMG Limited 58

7.2 Western Areas Limited 59

7.3 Panoramic Resources Limited 60

7.4 Hillgrove Resources Limited 61

7.5 Glencore Xstrata plc 62

7.6 China Minmetals Corporation 63

7.7 Newmont Mining Corporation 64

7.8 Intec Ltd 65

8 Fiscal Regime 66

8.1 The Australian Mining Industry – Governing Bodies 66

8.1.1 National Level 66

8.1.2 State/Territory Involvement 67

8.2 The Australian Mining Industry – Governing Laws 69

8.2.1 Offshore Legislation 69

8.2.2 Onshore Legislation 69

8.2.3 Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 71

8.2.4 Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act 1987 71

8.3 The Australian Mining Industry – Mining Rights and Obligations 72

8.3.1 Rights 72

8.3.2 Obligations 72

8.4 The Australian Mining Industry – Key Fiscal Terms 73

8.4.1 Royalty 73

8.4.2 Minerals Resource Rent Tax (MRRT) 76

8.4.3 Corporate Income tax 77

8.4.4 Capital Gains 77

8.4.5 Deductions 77

8.4.6 Depreciation 77

8.4.7 Withholding Tax 78

8.4.8 Loss Carry Forward 78

8.4.9 Loss Carry Back Offset 78

8.4.10 Goods and Services Tax 78

9 Appendix 79

9.1 What is this Report About? 79

9.2 Methodology 79

9.3 Secondary Research 79

9.4 Primary Research 79

9.5 Contact GlobalData 80

9.6 About GlobalData 80

9.7 GlobalData’s Services 80

9.8 Disclaimer 82

List of Tables

Table 1: Copper Mining in Australia – Copper Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 15

Table 2: Copper Mining in Australia – Major Active Mines, 2013 18

Table 3: Copper Mining in Australia – Major Exploration Projects, 2013 19

Table 4: Copper Mining in Australia – Major Development Projects, 2013 20

Table 5: Copper Mining in Australia – Domestic Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 22

Table 6: Copper Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Region and Destination Countries (Thousand Tons), 2013 23

Table 7: Nickel Mining in Australia – Nickel Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 28

Table 8: Nickel Mining in Australia – Major Active Mines, 2013 30

Table 9: Nickel Mining in Australia – Major Exploration Projects, 2013 31

Table 10: Nickel Mining in Australia – Major Development Projects, 2013 32

Table 11: Nickel Mining in Australia – Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 33

Table 12: Nickel Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Region and Destination Countries (Thousand Tons), 2013 34

Table 13: Zinc Mining in Australia – Zinc Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 37

Table 14: Zinc Mining in Australia – Major Active Mines, 2013 40

Table 15: Zinc Mining in Australia – Major Exploration Projects, 2013 41

Table 16: Zinc Mining in Australia – Major Development Projects, 2013 42

Table 17: Zinc Mining in Australia – Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 44

Table 18: Zinc Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Region and Destination Countries (Thousand Tons), 2013 45

Table 19: Lead Mining in Australia – Lead Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 48

Table 20: Lead Mining in Australia – Major Active Projects, 2013 51

Table 21: Lead Mining in Australia – Major Exploration Projects, 2013 52

Table 22: Lead Mining in Australia – Major Development Projects, 2013 53

Table 23: Lead Mining in Australia – Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 55

Table 24: Lead Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Region and Destination Countries (Thousand Tons), 2013 56

Table 25: Base Metals Mining in Australia – MMG Limited (MMG) , Major Projects 59

Table 26: Base Metals Mining in Australia – Western Areas Limited, Major Projects 60

Table 27: Base Metals Mining in Australia – Panoramic Resources Limited, Major Projects 61

Table 28: Base Metals Mining in Australia – Hillgrove Resources Limited, Major Projects 62

Table 29: Base Metals Mining in Australia – Glencore Xstrata plc , Major Projects 63

Table 30: Base Metals Mining in Australia – China Minmetals Corporation, Major Projects 64

Table 31: Base Metals Mining in Australia – Newmont Mining Corporation, Major Projects 64

Table 32: Base Metals Mining in Australia – Intec Ltd, Major Projects 65

Table 33: The Mining Industry in Australia – Queensland Royalty Rates (% and AUD), 2014 73

Table 34: The Mining Industry in Australia – Queensland Mining Fees (AUD), 2014 74

Table 35: The Mining Industry in Australia – Western Australia Ad Valorem Royalty Rates (%), 2014 75

Table 36: The Mining Industry in Australia – South Australia Royalty Rates (%), 2014 75

Table 37: The Mining Industry in Australia – South Australia Annual Rents (AUD), 2014 75

Table 38: The Mining Industry in Australia – South Australia Mining Fees (AUD), 2014 76

Table 39: The Mining Industry in Australia – Depreciation Rates (%), 2014 78

List of Figures

Figure 1: Mining Industry in Australia – Gross Value Added and GDP, (1992–2013) 8

Figure 2: Copper Mining in Australia – Location of Major Copper Deposits in Australia, 2013 12

Figure 3: Copper Mining in Australia – Copper Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 14

Figure 4: Copper Mining in Australia – Copper Mine Production (%)* by State, 2013 16

Figure 5: Copper Mining in Australia – LME Nominal Prices for Copper, 2013–2019 (US$/t) 17

Figure 6: Copper Mining in Australia – Domestic Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 21

Figure 7: Copper Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Destination Countries (%), 2013 23

Figure 8: Copper Mining in Australia – Chinese Imports of Copper Ores and Concentrates (Tons), 2001–2013 24

Figure 9: Nickel Mining in Australia – Nickel Resources in Australia (%), 2013 25

Figure 10: Nickel Mining in Australia – Location of Major Nickel Deposits in Australia, 2013 26

Figure 11: Nickel Mining in Australia – Nickel Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 28

Figure 12: Nickel Mining in Australia – LME Nominal Prices for Nickel, 2013–2019 (US$/t) 29

Figure 13:: Nickel Mining in Australia – Nickel Ores and Concentrates Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 33

Figure 14: Nickel Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Destination Countries (%), 2013 34

Figure 15: Nickel Mining in Australia – Chinese Imports of Nickel Ores and Concentrates (Tons), 2007–2013 35

Figure 16: Zinc Mining in Australia – Zinc Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 37

Figure 17: Zinc Mining in Australia – Production by State (%), 2013 38

Figure 18: Zinc Mining in Australia – Nominal Prices for Zinc, 2013–2019 (US$/t) 39

Figure 19: Zinc Mining in Australia – Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 43

Figure 20: Zinc Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Destination Countries (%), 2013 45

Figure 21: Zinc Mining in Australia – Chinese Imports of Zinc Ores and Concentrates (Tons), 2005–2013 (Tons), 2013 46

Figure 22: Lead Mining in Australia – Lead Mine Production (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 48

Figure 23: Lead Mining in Australia – Lead Mine Production by State (%), 2013 49

Figure 24: Lead Mining in Australia – Nominal Prices for Lead, 2008–2013 (US$/ton) 50

Figure 25: Lead Mining in Australia – Consumption vs. Exports (Thousand Tons), 2000–2020 54

Figure 26: Lead Mining in Australia – Ores and Concentrates Export to Destination Countries (%), 2013 56

Figure 27: Lead Mining in Australia – Chinese Imports of Lead Ores and Concentrates (Tons), 2007–2013 57

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