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Middle East and Africa (MEA) Renewable Energy Policy Handbook by Key Countries, 2022 Update

Renewable energy has a mixed market outlook in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) region like the economies in the region themselves. While some countries are reluctant to develop renewable energy due to the abundance of conventional resources and some countries just cannot afford to support the development of renewable energy; some countries are proactively doing the same to reduce GHG emissions and appease international corridors. Yet, no country in the region is on the list of top renewable energy markets.

All 16 MEA countries covered in the report have set renewable targets in different forms. While some countries have capacity targets, some have generation share targets. Six of the countries have functioning FiT schemes for various renewable technologies, and Ghana and UAE are the only countries to have proposed a net-metering scheme.

What are the renewable energy market dynamics in the Middle East & Africa?

The introduction of FiTs has played a major role in creating and growing the renewable energy market in the MEA region. Every country that had introduced FiTs has seen positive effects of the move in the same or subsequent years. Establishing a dedicated agency to coordinate the promotion of one or more renewable technologies has also gone a long way in supporting market growth as seen in the case of Morocco. There was a sharp increase in solar capacity in 2010 after the formation of the Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy (MASEN).

Political turmoil has been one of the destabilizing factors in arresting the spread of renewable energy in the Middle East, and African region. Countries such as Iraq and the Syrian Arab Republic in the Middle East, and Angola in Africa which has been torn by local strife, have seen little development of dedicated policies to promote renewable energy.

What are the key insights of the Middle East & Africa renewable energy policies?

Egypt: The Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MOERE) oversees the management of the Egyptian electricity sector through its subsidiary company the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC) and in coordination with the Egyptian Electric Utility and Consumer Protection Regulatory Agency (EgyptERA), New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), Hydro Power Plants Executive Authority, Nuclear Power Plant Authority and Atomic Power Plants Authority. The Supreme Energy Council (SEC) headed by the prime minister, and other concerned ministers are responsible for all policy-related matters involving the electricity sector.

Ghana: Ghana launched its renewable power program in 2011 with the passing of the Renewable Energy Act, which provides for grid access for renewable power producers in Ghana and Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs). The main target growth areas are wind, solar, and biomass. In 2018, the African Development Bank has approved a $1.5 million grant from its Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa (SEFA), to assist Ghana’s renewable energy investment drive. The grant supports the Ghana Government’s efforts to overcome technical, financial, regulatory, and institutional barriers to scaling-up renewable energy investments in the country.

Israel: The government has set a target to generate 13% of electricity from renewable sources by 2025, and 17% by 2030. Ministry of Energy and Water Resources is promoting the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources, particularly solar, wind, and biomass (such as solid waste fermentation, gas from landfills, and fermentation of sludge in wastewater treatment), in collaboration with the Ministry of Finance and the Public Utility Authority (PUA).

Nigeria: With a view to ensuring the transition toward a fully privatized power market, the EPSRA also paved the way to establish the Nigerian Bulk Electricity Trader (NBET), which was formed in July 2010, responsible for purchasing electricity from generation companies and selling it to distribution companies. To narrow down the gap between rural and urban electrification, the EPSRA also created the Rural Electrification Agency (REA), responsible for stimulating rural electrification through various instruments, including subsidization.

Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia’s electricity market is regulated by three major government entities, the Electricity and Co-Generation Regulatory Agency (ECRA), the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy, and the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE). Saudi Arabia aims to achieve a sustainable energy mix, with solar and nuclear power potentially accounting for more than half of its power supply by 2040. Initially, the country announced that it aims to add 54 Gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy capacity by 2032 under its renewable energy roadmap of which 41 GW was earmarked for solar installations by 2030. However, in 2016, the kingdom rolled back its plans for renewable energy development and reduced the renewable energy targets.

South Africa: The Department of Energy (DoE) is responsible for the development and management of South Africa’s energy sources. Prior to the formation of the DoE, the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) was responsible for overseeing the power sector. In 2009, the DME was split into the DoE and the Department of Mineral Resources. The Hydrocarbons and Energy planning branch of the DoE is responsible for coal, gas, liquid fuels, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and energy planning.

UAE: Electricity sectors in all Emirates, except for Abu Dhabi, are dominated by state agencies. In Abu Dhabi, independent power producers (IPPs) and independent water and power producers (IWPPs) are joint ventures between the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) holding companies and private investors, which hold 60% and 40%, respectively. All IWPPs sell water and electricity to a single state-owned buyer, Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC).

The Middle East & Africa renewable energy policies, by key countries

The Middle East & Africa renewable energy policies, by key countries

For more insights on key countries, download a free report sample

Market report scope

Regional coverage Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Ghana, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tanzania, and the United Arab Emirates.

 Scope

  • The report covers policy measures and incentives used by countries in the Middle East and Africa region to promote renewable energy.
  • The report details promotional measures in the Middle East and Africa region both for the overall renewable energy market and for specific renewable energy technologies that have potential in the region.
  • The report covers 16 major countries in the Middle East and Africa region – Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Ghana, Iran, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Tanzania, and the United Arab Emirates.

Reasons to Buy

  • The report will enhance your decision-making capability in a more rapid and time-sensitive manner. It will allow you to:
  • Develop business strategies with the help of specific insights about policy decisions being taken for different renewable energy sources.
  • Identify opportunities and challenges in exploiting various renewable technologies.
  • Compare the level of support provided to different renewable energy technologies in different countries in the region.
  • Be ahead of the competition by keeping yourself abreast of all the latest policy changes.

Table of Contents

| Table of Contents

1 Executive Summary

2 Algeria Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

2.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

2.2 Renewable Energy Targets

2.3 Hydrogen Energy

2.4 Energy Transition Plan

2.5 Auctions

2.6 Feed in Tariffs for Wind and Solar

2.7 Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement

2.8 Foreign Investment Laws and Regulations

3 Angola Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

3.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

3.2 Renewable Energy Targets

3.3 Hydrogen Energy

3.4 The General Electricity Act, 2014

3.5 National Renewable Energy Strategy

3.6 Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Law

3.7 The Angola 2025 Long Term Strategy

3.8 Sustainable Energy for All 2030 Goals

4 Egypt Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

4.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

4.2 Renewable Energy Targets

4.3 Electricity Law No. 87 of 2015

4.4 Renewable Energy Law (Decree No. 203/2014)

4.5 Integrated Sustainable Energy Strategy (ISES) 2035

4.6 Build, Own, Operate, and Transfer (BOOT) Scheme

Auctions for BOO contract

4.7 Reverse Auctions

4.8 Incentives on Renewable Energy Equipment

4.9 Net Metering Scheme

4.10 Waste to Energy Tariff

4.11 Sovereign Guarantee

4.12 Wheeling Schemes

4.13 Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Paris Agreement

5 Ghana Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

5.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

5.2 Renewable Energy Targets

5.3 Renewable Energy Act

Net Metering

Feed-in Tariffs

5.4 National Energy Policy

5.5 Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP)

5.6 National Energy Strategy

Renewable Energy Development and Management Programme (REDP)

Strategic National Energy Plan (SNEP)

5.7 Energy Sector Strategy and Development Plan (ESSDP)

5.8 Sustainable Energy for All (SEforAll)

5.9 Ghana Energy Development and Access Project (GEDAP)

6 Iran Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

6.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

6.2 Renewable Energy Targets

6.3 Hydrogen Energy

6.4 Feed-in Tariffs

6.5 Renewable Energy Development Fund

6.6 Renewable Portfolio Standards

6.7 Support for IPPs to Export Electricity to Neighbouring Countries

6.8 Call for Auction

6.9 Sixth Development Plan

7 Israel Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

7.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

7.2 Renewable Energy Targets

7.3 Independent Electricity Generation Policy

7.4 Government Decision 171/2021 – Transition to a Low Carbon Economy

7.5 National Waste Strategy

7.6 Net Metering

7.7 Renewable Power Tenders/Auctions

Innovative Solar Projects

8 Kenya Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

8.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

8.2 Renewable Energy Targets

8.3 Energy Act 2019

8.4 Net Metering

8.5 Tax Incentives

8.6 Feed-in Tariff (FiT)

8.7 Renewable Energy Auctions Policy (REAP)

8.8 Least Cost Power Development Plan (LCPDP) 2021-2030

9 Kuwait Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

9.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

9.2 Renewable Energy Targets

9.3 Innovative Renewable Energy Research Program

9.4 Renewable Energy Building and Site Integration

9.5 Environment Protection Law

10 Morocco Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

10.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

10.2 Renewable Energy Targets

10.3 Hydrogen Energy

10.4 Renewable Energy Development Law

10.5 Net-Metering Legislation (Law n°58-15)

10.6 National Energy Strategy

10.7 Law of Self-Generation

10.8 Green Bonds

10.9 Morocco Sustainable Energy Financing Facility (MorSEEF)

10.10 Tatwir Green Growth Program

10.11 Industrial Recovery Plan 2021-2023

10.12 Morocco Wind Energy Program

10.13 Morocco Renewable Power Tenders

11 Mozambique Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

11.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

11.2 Power Sector Reforms

11.3 Integrated Master Plan of Energy Infrastructures

11.4 Renewable Energy Development 2011–2025

11.5 Fundo de Energia (FUNAE)

11.6 National Biofuels Policy

11.7 Renewable Energy for Rural Development

11.8 Sustainable Energy Fund for Africa (SEFA) in Mozambique

11.9 Temane Transmission Project

12 Nigeria Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

12.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

12.2 Renewable Energy Targets

12.3 Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP)

12.4 National Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Policy (NREEP)

12.5 Off-grid Electrification Strategy

12.6 Multi-Year Tariff Order (MYTO)

12.7 Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs)

12.8 Net Metering

12.9 Competitive Procurement

12.10 Nigerian Economic Sustainability Plan

12.11 Green Bonds

12.12 Solar Hybrid Mini Grid Fund

13 Qatar Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

13.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

13.2 Renewable Energy Targets

13.3 Qatar National Vision 2030

13.4 Qatar Second National Development Strategy 2018-2022 (NDS-2)

13.5 Solar Tenders

13.6 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Development

14 Saudi Arabia Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

14.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

14.2 Renewable Energy Targets

14.3 Hydrogen Energy

14.4 Saudi Vision 2030 and National Renewable Energy Program (NREP)

14.5 Saudi Green Initiative

14.6 Net Metering

14.7 Renewable Energy Auctions

14.8 National Industrial Cluster Development Program

14.9 Energy Research Innovation Program

14.10 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)

15 South Africa Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

15.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

15.2 Renewable Energy Targets

15.3 Hydrogen Energy

15.4 Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Program (REIPPPP)

15.5 Integrated Energy Plan (IEP)

15.6 Integrated Resource Plan (IRP)

15.7 Government plans to unbundle Eskom

15.8 Vision, Strategic Direction, and Framework for Climate Policy

15.9 Local Content Requirement (LCR)

15.10 Tax incentives

Carbon Tax

South Africa Energy Efficiency Tax Deduction

Green Energy Efficiency Fund

Accelerated Depreciation Allowances

15.11 Green Fund

16 Tanzania Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

16.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

16.2 Rural Energy Act, 2005

16.3 Electricity Act, 2008

16.4 Competitive Bidding Framework

16.5 Feed-in-Tariff

16.6 The Rural Energy Fund (REF)

16.7 Scaling up Renewable Energy Program

16.8 Power System Master Plan, 2012–2030

16.9 National Energy Policy, 2015

16.10 National Rural Electrification Program (2013–2022)

17 UAE Power Market, Regulatory Scenario

17.1 Renewable Energy Market, Overview

17.2 Renewable Energy Targets

17.3 Dubai Integrated Energy Strategy 2030

17.4 Smart Dubai Initiatives

17.5 Dubai Clean Energy Strategy 2050

17.6 UAE Energy Strategy 2050

17.7 Net Metering

17.8 Green Building Code

17.9 Renewable Energy Auctions

17.10 Overseas Renewable Energy Development Assistance Programme

18 Appendix

18.1 Abbreviations

18.2 Market Definitions

Power

Renewable Power

Installed Capacity

Electricity Generation

Electricity Consumption

18.3 Methodology

Coverage

Secondary Research

Primary Research

Modelling and Forecasting

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List of Tables

| List of Tables

Table 1: Renewable Energy Policy, Middle East, and Africa, 2022

Table 2: Solar PV Tender Details, Algeria, 2018

Table 3: Wind Power Feed-in Tariffs, Algeria

Table 4: Wind Power Feed-in Tariffs, Algeria

Table 5: Feed-in Tariffs, Ghana

Table 6: Renewable Energy Master Plan, Ghana, 2019-2030

Table 7: Feed-in Tariffs, For Power Plants with Capacity less than 10 MW, Iran, 2021

Table 8: Feed-in Tariffs, Small Renewable Generators, Iran, 2021

Table 9: Renewable Energy Auctions, Israel, 2017 – 2020

Table 10: FiT Values for Small Renewable Projects below 10 MW, Kenya, 2021

Table 11: FiT Values for Small Renewable Projects above 10 MW, Kenya, 2021

Table 12: Multi-Year Tariff Order, Nigeria, 2017-2022

Table 13: Feed-in Tariffs, Nigeria

Table 14: Capacity Awarded, South Africa, 2011-2021

Table 15: Price Trend of Solar PV ($/kWh), REIPPPP, South Africa, 2011-2021

Table 16: Price Trend of Onshore Wind ($/kWh), REIPPPP, South Africa, 2011-2021

Table 17: South Africa, REIPPP LCR in Wind Power Projects, 2019

Table 18: Standardized Small Power Projects Tariff, Tanzania, 2019

Table 19: Abbreviations

List of Figures

| List of Tables

Table 1: Renewable Energy Policy, Middle East, and Africa, 2022

Table 2: Solar PV Tender Details, Algeria, 2018

Table 3: Wind Power Feed-in Tariffs, Algeria

Table 4: Wind Power Feed-in Tariffs, Algeria

Table 5: Feed-in Tariffs, Ghana

Table 6: Renewable Energy Master Plan, Ghana, 2019-2030

Table 7: Feed-in Tariffs, For Power Plants with Capacity less than 10 MW, Iran, 2021

Table 8: Feed-in Tariffs, Small Renewable Generators, Iran, 2021

Table 9: Renewable Energy Auctions, Israel, 2017 – 2020

Table 10: FiT Values for Small Renewable Projects below 10 MW, Kenya, 2021

Table 11: FiT Values for Small Renewable Projects above 10 MW, Kenya, 2021

Table 12: Multi-Year Tariff Order, Nigeria, 2017-2022

Table 13: Feed-in Tariffs, Nigeria

Table 14: Capacity Awarded, South Africa, 2011-2021

Table 15: Price Trend of Solar PV ($/kWh), REIPPPP, South Africa, 2011-2021

Table 16: Price Trend of Onshore Wind ($/kWh), REIPPPP, South Africa, 2011-2021

Table 17: South Africa, REIPPP LCR in Wind Power Projects, 2019

Table 18: Standardized Small Power Projects Tariff, Tanzania, 2019

Table 19: Abbreviations

Frequently Asked Questions

Algeria, Ghana, Iran, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tanzania have FiT schemes for renewable technologies.

 

 

 

 

Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa have tac exemption incentives for renewable technologies.

Ghana and UAE are the only countries to have proposed a net-metering scheme.

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